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William Barraclough and the life of Adam Grant Horne
October 23 1962
Transcribed by Glenys Wall, October 2004
Barraclough: This recording relates selected accounts on the life of Adam Grant Horne. He could be called Nanaimo's Trader Horne. Supplemented by a few items of historical interest that are relevant to the story, including the Indian massacre at Qualicum in 1856. The article was presented before Nanaimo Historical Society, Tuesday October 23, 1962. This is William Barraclough speaking.
My subject concerns Adam Grant Horne, a man who was prominent in the early days of Nanaimo, both in business and the social life of the community. He was one of the outstanding personalities of pioneer days. Although his name is perpetuated by Horne Lake being named after him, the honour which is his just due has not been accorded him in Nanaimo by some place near the centre of the city named after him. His activities in Nanaimo did much to influence the mode of life during the formative days here. Here is what Captain John T. Walbran who commanded the Canadian Government Ship, Quadra, 1891 to 1908 writes about Mr. Horne: "He was a man of fearless, daring disposition, who the Indians seemed to admire as well as dread for his intrepidity". Captain Walbran would have known Mr. Horne personally, being in and out of Nanaimo Harbour frequently.
Adam Grant Horne was a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, born in 1829. He arrived on this coast in the ship Tory in response to an advertisement by the Hudson's Bay Company. He landed at Victoria and died at Nanaimo in 1901, aged 72 years.
Mr. Horned joined the Hudson's Bay Company staff in 1851 at Victoria. His first assignment was at Fort Rupert, Beaver Harbour, Vancouver Island. When the Company established a store at Nanaimo in 1852, Mr. Horne was placed here as storekeeper, which position he held until 1862 when the Company sold out to Vancouver Coal Mining Company Limited. Captain Charles Edward Stuart was Chief Factor during this period. The following year in 1863, Mr. Horne commenced business of his own account at Nanaimo. A further account of Mr. Horne's business activities will be given later in this article.
The first Hudson's Bay Company store was situated on the waterfront, behind the new Canadian Bank of Commerce building. Wharf Street was built up later. Mr. William Lewis, now 98 years old, related to me that he often visited the store or warehouse as he called it, when a boy. When flintlock guns went out of use, the Hudson's Bay Company had two barrels of flints left on hand. He says: "We boys used to have competitions as to who could throw the flints the furthest over the water."
It was during his duties in Nanaimo with the Hudson's Bay Company that Mr. Horne was called to Victoria by Chief Factor Roderick Finlayson in 1856. He was in command of the post there. Horne was instructed to organise a party to travel overland from Nanaimo to the west coast of Vancouver Island. It was during this historic expedition that he traveled by the Horne Lake Waterway. The name Horne Lake was given by Captain Richards, R.N. in 1860 after Mr. Horne, who took Captain Richards and officers of her Her Majesty's Ship Plumper to the lake in 1859. Regarding his first expedition across the Island, I have selected two entries from the Hudson's Bay Company's journal kept at Nanaimo by Captain C.E. Stuart as reported by Captain John T. Walbran in his book "British Columbia Coast Names". Captain Stuart was Chief Factor at Nanaimo 1855-1857.
" Saturday, 10th May 1856, 2.30 p.m. Toma Ouamtomy left here on an expedition across the island, accompanied by three Indians and one Indian woman. Mr. Horne left with him instructions not to proceed further than the high mountain situated a little beyond the large lake in the interior, but if the interior tribe be peaceable he may proceed to seaboard." Mr. Horne and his party left Nanaimo somewhat later.
Quoting for the journal again: "Sunday, 18 May, 1856 Mr. Horne and Toma Ouamtomy returned from their expedition to the other side of Vancouver Island, having crossed to the seaboard, which appears, as far as we have hitherto examined, to be an inlet near Port Cox, in Claicut, or, perhaps an inlet to the south of it. They traded a quantity of beaver and martin furs."
When recording this event at Nanaimo their suppositions of geographical positions were much in error. The Port Cox mentioned is a little south of Tofino, and the Claicut would be Clayoquot Sound. The place of tidewater reached would be Port Alberni at the head of Barkley Sound. This is much further south than Clayoquot Sound. There are several entries and records listed of Mr. Horne making trips across Vancouver Island later.
These two factual items from the journal of the Hudson's Bay Company at Nanaimo confirm the trip as being accomplished but for the actual experiences of the journey and the eyewitness account of the gruesome massacre at Qualicum River I refer to Dr. W.W. Walkem's book " Early Stories of British Columbia". Very few copies of this book were placed in circulation and it was through the kindness of Mrs. H. L. Horne who loaned me the book, that I was able to gather much of the information for this story of that historic trip. Dr. Walkem prepared most of his material for his book, so we're told, in a small room at the back of the old Flag Inn, Nanaimo. That is why the present Capitol Theatre now stands. It was during May that Dr. Walkem interviewed Mr. Horne in his garden at 149 Wallace Street. It was the anniversary of the massacre of the Qualicum Indians by the Haida tribe. I will read a few excerpts from the book to get the atmosphere as the story was unfolding and the personal friendship that existed between these two pioneer citizens. The opening paragraph states:
"In Nanaimo on one beautiful morning in the month of May an old friend of mine was sitting on a bench in the centre of his well-kept lawn. Mr. Adam Grant Horne was a gentleman who had once seen very strenuous times in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. He had lost much of his physical strength but his brain was as clear and active as ever. Opening the garden gate, I approached the old gentleman who was leaning forward with his hands crossed over the head of his stout walking stick. " " Good morning" " I said. After a moment's hesitation he replied: " " Good morning, doctor. I knew your voice but my sight is failing me, I did not recognise your face." " He remarked: " " I was thinking of the bygone days when of the many strange incidents of my early life in the service of the Company and all it once it occurred it to me that this day was the anniversary of the murder of the small tribe of Indians who lived at the Qualicum by a party of Haidas from Queen Charlotte Islands. But sit down and enjoy the ozone of this balmy atmosphere.""
The story in connection with this massacre is a long one because it is interwoven with the account of the first trip of a white-man across Vancouver Island. I am only going to relate some of the highlights of the story. This trip is most interesting from an historical point of view. Roderick Finlayson who was the Hudson's Bay Company official in charge of Fort Victoria sent word asking Mr. Horne to call on him at Victoria; the year was 1856. Mr. Finlayson showed him a rough sketch of the east coast of Vancouver Island, pointing out a creek a short distance north of Nanaimo. This creek he called the Qualicum. It would seem to me Mr. Finlayson rather underestimated the distance, especially when traveling by canoe. Mr. Finlayson was anxious to ascertain whether a trail existed from the Qualicum to the head of Barkley Sound and that he had selected him, Mr. Horne, to head a small expedition to proceed to the creek, interview the Indians there, and if a trail existed, ask their permission to use it and stating: "You will use great circumspection in approaching the subject of using the trail, if there be one, above all things to be constantly on guard against treachery". Finlayson selected two of his men, a French-Canadian named Cote, a good canoe-man and who knew the waters of the coast very well. He was invaluable in a crisis and who did not know what fear meant. The other man was to serve as interpreter, named Lafromboise. He also was a good canoe-man. Mr. Horne does not name the men he selected but one was an Iroquois Indian. All six men met that night to talk things over. A list of supplies had been assembled as selected by Mr. Horne and other details worked out about the trip. The next morning the Haida canoe, a large seaworthy craft was brought around to what is now the foot of Fort Street. The supplies were all packed aboard, they got away by 4.30 a.m. on the flood tide. Mr. Finlayson was there to see them off, waving a lantern, for it was not quite daylight.
With sail hoisted they bowled along all day at a good clip. They landed that evening in a snug bay on the west side of what is now Saltspring Island, where a camp was made. Horne appointed a Red River half-breed as night watch. Before turning in, the voyagers told some very interesting stories around the campfire. Up at 4.30 a.m. and breakfast disposed of, the canoe was reloaded and they were away with a good breeze, sailing between many islands. They saw several Indians fishing from canoes but they made no attempt to come close. That night the party camped on the eastern side of Newcastle Island:
"As it was our object to escape observation we made no fire, as it might have been seen by the natives living at the mouth of Nanaimo River. We lay concealed on this island until 9 o'clock the next night, when we again put the canoe in the water." One would reason that if the Indians saw a Haida canoe loaded for a journey with strangers accompanying Mr. Horne, they would become curious and want to follow the party. Especially if they thought food was possible. It must have been during the days spent on Newcastle Island that Mr. Horne crossed over to Nanaimo taking with him Toma Ouamtomy, mentioned in the Hudson's Bay Company journal. There would be lots of canoes around to cross over. It was Mr. Horne who gave instructions to Toma how to proceed, accompanied by the other three men and one woman.
In the story in Dr. Walkem's book there is no mention of this other canoe party, only a reference here and there about all the parties, some being well-armed. To substantiate this supposition there is a pen sketch in the book, "Entering the Qualicum". There are only five people, shown with two men sitting in the mid-ships wearing hats. These would be Mr. Horne and Cote. Leaving Nanaimo, they had a stiff southerly breeze at their backs. The water was rough, sometimes pouring over the sides of the canoe. Several Indian beach fires were observed on the way. At 2.30 a.m. they ran on a mud flat which Cote said was near the mouth of a river about five miles south of Qualicum. They got off safely and next landed on a rough beach during a gale blowing, a little south of the Qualicum. It was a difficult task to pack the supplies and the canoe past the brushes and into the timber. A suitable place for camp was found, a meal prepared and they soon rolled up so very tired. About 6 a.m. the Iroquois aroused Mr. Horne; he had been watching a large fleet of northern canoes. He anticipated trouble. All were soon spying from the edge of the timber. They saw the canoes enter the creek, one after the other, and disappear behind the bushes that boarded the stream. They ate a hurried breakfast and waited for developments. Soon volumes of smoke arose from the creek. It was about noon when the first canoe came back into view. "We were horrified at the antics of these demons in human shape as they rent the air with their shouts and yells. One or two of these manning each canoe would be standing upright, going through strange motions and holding a human head by the hair in either or both hands. There was a very strong wind and a very rough sea while this was going on. Heading their canoes to the south and hoisting mats for sail, they passed out of site in about an hour's time."
After lying concealed another hour or so, they once more launched the canoe, loaded it with the supplies and impedimenta, and poled their way along the shallow beach towards the creek. On account of the approach being shallow, a detour was made to enter the creek from the north. The creek was found to be swift with a good volume of water so they continued to pole their way up. Rounding the point a few minutes later, they witnessed the result of the frightful massacre. The rancherie was a blackened heap with smoke pouring from it. Horror of horrors! Every trunk was naked and headless and fearfully mutilated........some of my men were for returning to Victoria, but this I positively refused to do." After much searching for hiding natives, they heard one old woman by the water, moaning. She was badly wounded. She told them of the Haidas' raid. They had taken two young women, four little girls and two small boys away with them. The old woman died shortly afterwards.
The following item will confirm the fact that there were two canoes in the Horne party, but no direct reference is given to them. " This camp, with its headless bodies, was no place for us, so we returned to our canoes and left the creek as we had entered it, paddling two miles up the coast". They cached the canoes in some thick shrubbery; next, dug a hole to store supplies, wrapped in a tarp, which would be sufficient to reach Victoria again, effectively concealing the cache. The party now struck into the forest, taking a southerly course. After four hours of search they came across a trail going north-north-west. With heavy packs, windfalls and wild confusion, it was very tough going. To feel safer from attack, they pushed on until dusk, when they emerged from the forest by a large, placid sheet of water. They made camp in a grove of arbutus trees, had their meal, rolled up in blankets and were soon asleep. During the night, peace was broken several times, between cougars calling, wolves howling and owls hooting, three species of them. Cote got up to guard the camp. Horne was up early next morning, carrying fishing pole and musket. The first thing he shot, an elk calf, which they needed for meat. Then he turned to fishing with flattering results. He could see trout moving in all directions. Hanging part of the carcass in a tree to use on the return journey, Horne stated that he was the first white-man to fish that lake. It was afterwards called Horne Lake. Quoting from Captain Walbran's book "Horne Lake, Vancouver Island, named in 1860 by Captain Richards, R.N. after Adam Grant Horne of the Hudson's Bay Company service, who took Captain Richards and officers of the Plumper to the lake in 1859".
As the men were tired from the previous day's experience, they waited until afternoon dinner before passing on. Skirting around the shore of the lake for some distance, which was marked with footprints of several kinds of animals, the trail up the slope became very tortuous. Like all Indian trails, they will not remove the obstacles, but walk around them. Darkness overtook them at the foot of the last mountain trail, so they camped there for the night. Before turning in, two men were put on watch to be relieved in turns. Leaving shortly after daybreak, they arrived at the summit about noon. From this point there was a fine view of the west coast. Making a cache of unwanted goods and resuming the journey, they caught site of what they thought was Barclay Sound. " I shall never forget that trail down the mountain side. It was so exceedingly steep in places that we could only descend by hanging onto the brush which skirted the trail, and letting ourselves down." The trail at the foot of the mountain led directly to saltwater. Their arrival produced great excitement among the Indians; shouting amongst the trees by the Indians went on. They kept out of site. Soon an arrow lodged in a tree, close to Mr. Horne's head. They kept under close cover from here on. Shouting now came from the other side of the narrow canal, when two Indians came into view, gesticulating and brandishing weapons. The interpreter, Lafromboise was not able to converse with them. Horne, taking off his pack and putting some knick-knacks in a bag, advanced to the water's edge. After some pantomiming with their hands and arms, the natives consented to let the party cross over. Canoes were available, Cote wielding a fir-branch with vigour. A few trinkets as mirrors were thrown to the natives; these were examined with wonder. Then biscuits, but not before Horne had taken a bite out first, would they eat them. Then knives, they were a big hit. Cote asked if anyone spoke the Songhee language. A young man about eighteen years came forward, and advised them they were the first strangers they had seen, and they were afraid. The boy explained he had been captured some years ago and held prisoner.
The rancherie was situated some distance from the saltwater canal. But Horne and his party visited the chief there. They were well armed, but the Indians tried to steal the bag of goods. The chief was asked to make the natives behave or there would be trouble. He gave the chief a blanket as a present from the Company who traded furs. The young Songhee then asked to be taken back to Victoria. Taking the chief to one side, a bargain was made to have the boy delivered at the foot of the mountain trail that evening, when he would be taken in exchange for two more blankets. The blankets and other supplies had been left far back on the trail. While preparing camp, Horne, Cote and Lafromboise walked down two miles to saltwater in another direction. Hear they saw a native fishing. I will give Horne's description of the method of fishing as it is almost identical to the way J.K. Lord, the noted British naturalist gives it after watching Indians fishing in Johnston's Strait in 1858. Lord's book was published in London in 1866. " This man had a wooden block carved into the shape of boy's spinning top, and adorned with a circle of feathers. This shuttlecock, for it closely resembled one, is placed at the end of a long, pronged spear and pushed far down into the water. Then standing over it, he withdrew the spear and allowing it to come slowly upward in front of the shuttle. This was evidently a bait or lure. For a few minutes after withdrawing the spear, a struggling grey cod was on its extremity." A lure of this kind is on display at the Maritime Museum in Vancouver.
When Horne and his men returned to camp from their walk, the chief or headman came in accompanied by the Songhee boy. The chief demanded an extra blanket. This was refused. point-blank. He was about to take the boy away back with him, when Cote pushed the boy amongst the party. They threw the two blankets to the chief, and motioned him to push-off. The boy warned the Indians would be back with more men and kill them all. They did return in a great state of excitement. Cote fired a volley over the nativesí heads and they fled in panic. Night came, the party settled down with Cote and the Iroquois acting as night watch. At daybreak, packs were hoisted and after gaining the summit, breakfast was made. It was mostly downhill traveling that day. They went into camp at dusk and reached the lake around noon the next day, when camp was made until the following morning. A noticeable fact was the abundance of game animals that visited the shore of the lake. A young buck, some ducks and grouse were taken. Preparations were made to return by way of the Qualicum. They were on the trail by 7 a.m. Nearing the coast a halt was called. A scout was sent forwards. He reported their location as only half-mile from the rancherie and no canoes in sight. They found the remains of the rancherie, still smouldering. The headless bodies had been partly devoured by animals. Locating their cache and canoes, the canoes were loaded up for the return journey. "During the course of the second afternoon of our journey southward, we turned into the mouth of Nanaimo River, and were accorded a friendly reception by the Nanaimo Indians." While at Nanaimo River, Horne describes how the natives capture waterfowl. Nets are strung between high poles, about forty feet apart. In the evening or early morning, the natives, from favourable positions, alarm the ducks. They take in sudden flight and get enmeshed in the netting. The observation of Mr. Horne of the high poles to capture waterfowl is an item of great historic interest.
When Captain George Vancouver was surveying the Strait of Juan de Fuca, his journal for April 1792 states: " The low, sandy, point of land, from which its great resemblance to Dungeness in British Channel, I call New Dungeness. On the low land were erected, perpendicularly and seemingly with much regularity, a number of very tall, straight poles like flag-staves or beacons, supported from the ground by spars. They were undoubtedly intended to answer some particular purpose, but whether of a religious, civil or military nature must be left to some future investigation."
Reports of the trip were made to Captain Stuart, who recorded them in the Hudson's Bay Company journal at Nanaimo. " On the second day after my visit to the Nanaimos, I arrived with my party at Victoria and received the commendations of the chief factor."
This party of the article is a brief history of Adam Grant Horne on his business and family life in and around Nanaimo. As I started Mr. Horne was the storekeeper for the Hudson's Bay Company at Nanaimo until they closed their business in 1862. In 1863 Mr. Horne commenced business on his own account. He built a frame structure, situated on the east side of Front Street, opposite the old green block, later the Plaza Hotel and near the entrance to the ramp of the old wharf. A few steps led down to the store. A public weigh-scale at street level for carts and waggons was in front of the store. The building was used later as police court with detention cells for short-time offenders. There are several pictures available showing the building and the high board fence reaching well down the slope when used for civic purposes.
Here is an interesting item I have called "In Retrospect" by Mr. Mark Bate, in part: " By a stroll around Nanaimo, Anno Domini 1874, starting from the Bastion, which then stood on the rocky eminence, corner of Front and Bastion Streets, passing along Front Street, there could be seen between the Bastion and Dallas Square, four small human log houses, 26 x 15 feet with a lean-to in the rear of each. On the right of Front Street was the old Court House, built as a store in 1863 by Adam Grant Horne, the only building on that side of the street."
In 1865, Mr. Horne rejoined the services of the Hudson's Bay Company and was appointed to their post in Fort Simpson as chief trader. He was afterwards in charge of the post at Comox until 1878 when the Company closed their business at that base. Mr. Horne then returned to Nanaimo and again commenced business on his own account. For his place of business he built a frame building at the south end of Victoria Crescent. I am fortunate in having a photostat copy of a letter in his handwriting, dated 26th August 1886. It is addressed to Thomas Cairns, Esquire at Comox. The two men would have traded together at the Hudson's Bay Company store at Comox. A copy of the letter is attached to this article. It reveals the social connections and the historical aspect in carrying on business in those times.
I will now read you this interesting letter:
"Nanaimo, B.C. 26th August, 1886.
To Thomas Cairns, Esquire, Comox.
My Dear Sir:
Your letter dated 20th, inst., with 100 lbs of butter and one box, forty dozen, came to hand. Also the 36 dozen eggs the time before, for which please accept my sincere thanks. The butter you have sent this time is as sweet as cream itself. In fact, it is better than any I think you have sent here before. In fact, it has been from straight cream. Mr. Greaves was here on his way to Victoria, so he would have me take a cask of his butter, put up with some patent top, so I considered to do so at 26 cents a pound. I hope it may be good. By the ship "Empire", I have just received two boxes of California golden E(?) as they call it, but for my use I should rather have yours. So mind you send me all you can make and all your eggs. I will pay you sometime. The next time you send eggs I would not pack them in hay. If it was me, I would put them in a box and put strips of wood on top that one could not get out an egg, but see them all the same. The time you sent down the 36 dozen I am sure there was 5 dozen broke and this time there is more. I have at both times taken the broken ones home to Mrs. Horne but that does not pay. I get them from Saltspring Island, 25 dozen in each box, all put in without straw and find in some of the boxes not one broke. Wilson, on the boat, has his eggs always put up in this manner. We have three very large ships in the harbour, all for coal, but times is very dull. The cooperated store has now ninety-one members, which is killing us by the yard. In fact, if they go on, we will have to try and sell out. You know that. The miners is that keeps the place and in fact keeps us all. Without the miners, we might all leave. Now let us know about your home and hope you have made an arrangement as the year is passing fast and you should have it finished before the rainy season comes in, which will not be long. If you could send us down some more butter and eggs, do so as we want all your eggs and all the time they are so, nice, large eggs. We sell eggs all the time, as for 3 dozen for the dollar. All the merchants does the same. I will send you some money as soon as I can.
Hoping you are all well, we send our regards to you all. I am, my dear sir, yours very truly.
P.S. Mrs. Horne, God willing, hopes to see you when your house is finished, if you are spared to that time in the next year or so. If you want anything, please let us know. AGH."
On August 6th 1962, I interviewed two of his sons, the last remaining members of his family. Thomas Charles Horne, born at Comox June 1871 and George Grant Horne, born at Nanaimo, January 31st 1881. They gave me personal information of the family which will not be included here. Mrs. Martha Kenny, our local historian, now in her 91st year, states the first home of Mr. & Mrs. Horne, after their marriage, was on the southeast corner of Bastion and Commercial Streets. He was a wonderful character and worthy of much more than casual mention. Mr. William Lewis, now in his 100th year, interviewed August 2nd 1962, stated Mr. Horne's store was a pleasant place to visit. He remarked what a fine looking man he was and that he always spoke in a quiet manner. Mr. Lewis remembers very well Mr. Horne telling of the Qualicum massacre and the trip across Vancouver Island. Also stories of early accounts of misdoings by the Indians and the chase was usually by canoe.
The family Bible is preserved by Mrs. H.L. Horne, 149 Wallace Street. Inscriptions on the forward pages:
" Bible, presented by Charles Edward Stuart to his friend Adam Grant Horne, on the day of his marriage with best wishes for his health and prosperity. Anno Domini February 22nd 1859, Colville Town, Nanaimo, Vancouver's Island."
Captain Charles Edward Stuart was the Chief Factor at Nanaimo for the Hudson's Bay Company. From the Bible also:
"Adam Grant Horne and Elizabeth Bate were married by the Reverend Mr. Dawson, in Nanaimo, Vancouver's Island, B.C. 22nd February, 1859."
A list of their children and date of birth is given. Elizabeth Bate was the sister of Mr. Mark Bate, Nanaimo's first mayor.
The Nanaimo Free Press, Saturday August 10th 1901 reports on the death of Mr. Horne, at length.
"Pioneer of Pioneers Dies. Adam Grant Horne born in Edinburgh in 1829, left Orkney for Victoria in response to an advertisement by the Hudson's Bay Company and arrived in the ship Tory in 1851. His personality, a link between the first settlement and the living present. He had been ailing and confined to his home for six or seven years."
His business activities are recorded at length.
"He served as Alderman for the city of Nanaimo. He was Councillor for the North Ward for the year 1886. His widow, a sister of ex-mayor Mark Bate and Mrs. Lucy Sabiston, survive him. There were eleven children, eight are living. Funeral, Sunday at 2 p.m. under the Masonic Lodge, the Reverend, E.C. Cooper of the English Church in attendance."
Form the Nanaimo City Burial Register:
"Adam Grant Horne died August 9th 1901, aged 72 years. Also Elizabeth Horne, widow of Adam Grant Horne, died July 6th 1905, aged 66 years."
Mr. & Mrs. Horne are buried in Nanaimo Cemetery. An ornamental fence surrounds the plot. Other members of the family are also buried there. No names appear on the headstone other than the names of two small children.
Here is an item of an historic interest concerning Mr. A.G. Horne and Constable Edwin Gough. Constable Gough was Mr. Hiram Gough's grandfather, who came on the Princess Royal to Nanaimo in 1854. In 1861 about 300 Bella Bella Indians in 19 large canoes were ordered away from Victoria by Governor Douglas. On their return journey north, they staged a surprise attack at dawn on the Penelahut Indians of Kuyper Island, a tribe of about 400 in number. About 225 Penelahuts were murdered in one of the worse massacres recorded.
A Nanaimo chief named Winni-win-chin was visiting Kuyper Island. He escaped to Nanaimo and reported the massacre to Mr. A.G. Horne, in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company Post. Mr. Horne dispatched canoe men to Victoria to report the act. H.M.S. Plumper, with Captain Richards, was ordered to try and intercept the Bella Bellas. Calling at Nanaimo Captain Richards picked up A.G. Horne and Constable Gough. The Bella Bella Indians were found to be camped at Willow Point, opposite Cape Mudge. Mr. Horne and Constable Gough went to ashore to demand the leaders of the massacre. The Indians were defiant, sending the two men back to the ship. Mr. Horne and Mr. Gough went ashore the next day to try and arrest the leaders. Captain Richards fired a cannon, smashing a cedar tree as a warning. The Bella Bellas became war-like. One pushed Mr. Horne about; that was too much. He struck the Indian down with the butt of his revolver and returned to the ship. The Plumper then fired several volleys into the Indian camp, demoralizing them. It was reported by Captain Richards on the outstanding bravery and daring deed of Mr. Horne and Mr. Gough.